(Princeton University Press) Examining the federal regulation of homosexuality in America from the turn of the 20th century, Canaday reveals how the state systematically came to penalize homosexuality and gave rise to a still-existent regime of second-class citizenship for sexual minorities. Focusing on immigration, the military, and welfare, she explains how federal enforcement of sexual norms began with the rise of the modern bureaucratic state. She argues that mid-century repression was not a sudden response to newly visible gay subcultures, but rather the result of a longer process of state building and the state’s growing knowledge and concern about homosexuality. Canaday is an assistant professor of history at Princeton University.