“That was a big influence for me,” says White, who went on to earn his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Michigan. A professor of politics and public affairs at Princeton, White focuses on issues of race in politics, specifically on what factors including social pressures and socioeconomic differences underlie the political cohesion of Black Americans.
White’s Studies: A Sampling
UNITED WE STAND
Up to 90 percent of Black Americans identify as Democrats, but what accounts for this strong party cohesion? White experimented by testing self-interest vs. party loyalty. In 2012, his research team offered Black college students $100 to donate to organizations that would support either President Barack Obama or the Republican candidate, Mitt Romney; nearly all contributed to Obama. When the students were offered money back to donate anonymously to the Republican-leaning group, Democratic donations dropped by nearly half. However, if the students were first told that their donations would be published in the school newspaper, Democratic donations returned to their initial level. In Steadfast Democrats: How Social Forces Shape Black Political Behavior, White and his co-author argue that this social pressure was formed — and persists — to solidify a marginalized group so that together the members can enact political change.
HOW ANGER FUELS CHANGE
What drives Black Americans to participate in different forms of political engagement, such as protesting? White’s research team found that when participants were asked to write about a racialized experience that made them angry, they were more likely to donate afterward to Black causes and were generally “more likely to seek out ways of empowering the race.” These results, presented in the award-winning paper Black Politics: How Anger Influences the Political Actions Blacks Pursue to Reduce Racial Inequality, point to anger as “a particularly effective tool for getting Black Americans to engage in costly political behavior, in their effort to bring about some group benefits.”
White is currently working on a project that will examine Black Americans’ varying levels of support for slavery reparations. “I’m interested in using the research as a tool for understanding the class differences that exist among African Americans,” he explains. “One of the proposals is a reparations policy that would only affect lower-income African Americans, for example. What does African American support for a program like that look like? Does that create division?” The goal will be to “understand where the group homogeneity starts to break down,” he says, so reparation policies can be designed to maximize support.